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bd40bc7c7a Around 10% of cell power is consumed to overcome the electrical resistance of prebaked anode (50-60 m). Carbon is consumed more than theoretical value due to a low current efficiency and non-electrolytic consumption. Temperature increases bottom to the top of the column and in-situ baking takes place as the anode is lowered into the bath. ^ "Energy efficiency best practice in the Australian aluminium industry" (PDF). Alumina is dissolved in molten cryolite, typically at 960 C, according to the following simplified reactions:. 288-291, 1975 ^ B. Carbon purity is not as stringent as for anode, because metal contamination from cathode is not significant. 58, pp.
These aggregates are mixed with pitch or oil as binder, briquetted and loaded into the shell. Its density is also lower than that of liquid aluminium (2 vs 2.3 g/cm3), which allows natural separation of the product from the salt at the bottom of the cell. Aluminium smelting is the process of extracting aluminium from its oxide, alumina, generally by the Hall-Hroult process. Power must be constantly available, since the pots have to be repaired at significant cost if the liquid metal solidifies. Habashi, Handbook of Extractive Metallurgy vol. The Hall-Hroult electrolysis process is the major production route for primary aluminium. Aluminium smelting is highly energy intensive, and in some countries is only economical if there are inexpensive sources of electricity. In some countries, smelters are given exemptions to energy policy like renewable energy targets.. This can be as small as 0.5kg per ton of aluminium in the best plants in 2007, up to 4kg per ton of aluminium in older designs in 1974.